Pros & Cons of Euro Adoption

The government’s new target date for Bulgaria’s adoption of the euro (EUR), from 1 January 2025, is the subject of much anticipation and discussion. As a member of the European Union since 2007 and in a currency board environment, Bulgaria is preparing for this moment by maintaining a fixed exchange rate between the Bulgarian lev (BGN) and the euro. This change will have an impact on the Bulgarian economy, politics, and society, but how serious will it be? In this article, we will try to briefly look at the potential advantages and disadvantages of adopting the euro in Bulgaria, and we will go into the topic of how it may affect the daily lives of ordinary citizens and businesses.


Economic Stability and Credibility

The Euro is a globally recognized and trusted currency. For businesses, this means enhanced economic stability, attracting foreign investment, and fostering trust among international partners. Companies will find it easier to secure financing and engage in international trade.

Price Stability

The fixed exchange rate with the Euro has already contributed to price stability in Bulgaria. For businesses, this stability minimizes currency-related risks and simplifies pricing strategies. It fosters a predictable business environment for both domestic and foreign firms operating in Bulgaria.

Elimination of Exchange Rate Risk

Bulgaria's fixed exchange rate has already eliminated the need for currency exchange, reducing transaction costs and risks for businesses involved in international trade. This advantage will persist after adopting the Euro, making cross-border transactions more efficient.

Increased Trade Opportunities

Membership in the Eurozone can lead to increased trade opportunities within the European Union. Bulgarian businesses can expect smoother cross-border transactions and increased access to a larger consumer base. Export-oriented industries stand to benefit significantly.

Enhanced Financial Integration

Bulgaria's financial institutions have been aligning more closely with European standards. This will promote financial stability and make it easier for businesses to access European banking services. Multinational corporations will find it easier to manage their financial operations within Bulgaria.

Tourism Boost

Bulgaria is a popular tourist destination, and adopting the Euro would eliminate currency conversion costs for tourists. The tourism sector, which plays a crucial role in Bulgaria's economy, is expected to flourish with an influx of Eurozone tourists.


Loss of Monetary Independence

By adopting the Euro, Bulgaria will have limited control over its monetary policy. This could pose challenges during economic downturns when the government has limited flexibility to devalue its currency to stimulate exports.

Risk of Asymmetric Shocks

Bulgaria may face difficulties if it experiences economic shocks that differ from those affecting the Eurozone as a whole. It won't have the option to devalue its currency to remain competitive, which could impact export-dependent businesses.

Conversion Costs

Some businesses may incur costs associated with transitioning their systems to the Euro. These include updating point-of-sale systems, accounting software, and adapting price tags. However, these costs are generally considered manageable.

Potential for Price Increases

While the Euro can bring price stability, there's a risk that some businesses may round up prices to the nearest Euro denomination, potentially impacting consumers' budgets during the transition.

Fiscal Discipline

Euro adoption requires strict adherence to fiscal rules, including limitations on budget deficits. Businesses may face challenges if the government implements austerity measures that affect public spending and demand for certain goods and services.

Let’s explore how the adoption of the Euro (EUR) would impact the everyday lives of regular citizens in Bulgaria and the impact on their salaries and income:

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Impact on Regular Citizens:

  1. Price Transparency: Euro adoption will increase price transparency for regular citizens, making it easier to compare prices and make informed decisions.
  2. Reduced Currency Conversion Costs: The elimination of currency exchange costs will benefit frequent travelers within the Eurozone, who will enjoy the convenience of using a single currency.
  3. Stable Prices: The Euro’s price stability will enhance the purchasing power of citizens over time, ensuring fewer fluctuations in the cost of everyday goods and services.
  4. Access to Eurozone Services: Regular citizens will have better access to financial services offered within the Eurozone. This might include the ability to obtain loans with lower interest rates, similar to citizens in Eurozone countries.
  5. Potential for Increased Foreign Investment: Economic stability could attract more foreign investment, potentially leading to job creation and higher incomes for citizens.
  6. Consumer Confidence: The Euro’s reputation can enhance consumer confidence, potentially increasing spending and stimulating the economy.
  7. Impact on Savings and Investments: Citizens with savings or investments in Lev will need to consider the impact of Euro adoption on their portfolios. Investors might need to rebalance their portfolios to account for the currency change.
  8. Transition Costs: Some initial costs associated with transitioning to the Euro could indirectly affect consumers if businesses pass them on through price increases.
  9. Public Opinion and Social Acceptance: Public sentiment and social acceptance will play a crucial role in shaping how Euro adoption impacts citizens. An informed and supportive public can contribute to a smoother transition.

The impact on the salaries and income

  1. Price Stability: The Euro is known for its price stability. It is expected that inflation will be better controlled with the Euro as the official currency. This can lead to stable or even slightly increased purchasing power for citizens, as prices for everyday goods and services become more predictable.
  2. Wage Adjustments: In the lead-up to Euro adoption, there may be adjustments to wages and salaries to account for the change in currency. However, these adjustments should be gradual and should aim to maintain the real value of wages. In the long term, wage growth may continue, but it will depend on factors like economic performance, labor market conditions, and government policies.
  3. Impact on Fixed Incomes: Retirees and individuals on fixed incomes, such as pensions, may see their purchasing power maintained or even slightly improved due to reduced inflation with the Euro. The stability of prices can be particularly beneficial for this demographic.
  4. Cost of Living: While the Euro can bring price stability, it’s essential to consider potential price increases during the transition phase. Some businesses may round up prices to the nearest Euro denomination. Regular citizens may experience a temporary increase in the cost of living, affecting their disposable income.
  5. Public Sector Wages: The government will need to manage public sector wages to ensure they remain competitive and fair. Public sector employees should see wage stability, but significant increases may depend on budgetary constraints.
  6. Consumer Confidence: The adoption of the Euro can enhance consumer confidence, potentially leading to increased spending and economic growth. This can have a positive influence on overall income levels as businesses thrive.
  7. Impact on Small Businesses: Small businesses may face challenges during the transition due to conversion costs and potential price adjustments. Their ability to maintain or increase income levels will depend on their adaptability and ability to pass on any increased costs to consumers.
  8. Government Policies: Government policies play a crucial role in determining the impact of Euro adoption on income levels. Policies related to taxation, social programs, and support for vulnerable populations can significantly influence the distribution of income in society.

In conclusion, the impact of Euro adoption on salaries and income in Bulgaria will depend on various factors, including the overall economic performance, government policies, and the ability of businesses to adapt to the new currency. While the Euro is expected to bring price stability and increased consumer confidence, there may be temporary challenges and adjustments that citizens need to navigate as the country transitions to the Euro. It will be essential for the government to implement measures that ensure a smooth and equitable transition for all citizens.

Impact on the Business Environment & Different Sectors of the Economy

  1. Enhanced Competitiveness: Bulgarian businesses, particularly exporters, will benefit from being part of the Eurozone. They will no longer face exchange rate fluctuations, making their products more competitive in international markets.
  2. Increased Foreign Investment: A stable currency and a predictable business environment are attractive to foreign investors. The adoption of the Euro is likely to encourage more foreign direct investment, leading to job creation and economic growth.
  3. Streamlined Cross-Border Trade: Businesses involved in cross-border trade within the European Union will enjoy streamlined transactions. The elimination of currency conversion will reduce administrative burdens and costs.
  4. Improved Financial Services: Bulgaria’s financial sector will align more closely with European standards, which can benefit businesses by providing access to a wider range of financial services and products


There are several sectors and industries that can also experience positive impacts. Here are some examples:

  • Information Technology (IT) and Software Services: Bulgaria has a growing IT and software development sector known for its skilled workforce and competitive prices. Euro adoption can make it more appealing for international tech companies to outsource their projects to Bulgarian firms, fostering growth in the IT sector.
  • Tourism and Hospitality: As mentioned earlier, tourism is a vital industry in Bulgaria. With the Euro, the country becomes an even more attractive destination for Eurozone tourists, leading to increased bookings, revenues, and opportunities for expansion in the hospitality sector.
  • Automotive Manufacturing: Bulgaria has been attracting investments from major automotive companies like Volkswagen and Great Wall Motors. The Euro’s stability can enhance investor confidence and encourage further investments in the automotive manufacturing sector.
  • Renewable Energy: The adoption of the Euro can also attract more investment in renewable energy projects. Bulgaria has significant renewable energy potential, and Euro adoption can make it easier for international investors to participate in the country’s green energy sector.
  • Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences: Bulgaria has a developing pharmaceutical industry. Euro adoption can boost this sector by facilitating international trade and making it more attractive for pharmaceutical companies to set up manufacturing facilities and research centers in the country.
  • Textiles and Garments: Bulgaria has a history of textile and garment manufacturing. Euro adoption can increase the competitiveness of Bulgarian textile exports within the European market.
  • Financial Services: Eurozone banks and financial institutions may expand their operations in Bulgaria, providing more financial products and services to businesses and individuals. This can stimulate financial sector growth.
  • Real Estate and Construction: A stable currency can boost confidence in the real estate market. Investors, both domestic and foreign, may find Bulgaria’s property market more appealing, leading to increased construction and real estate development.
  • Transport and Logistics: The elimination of currency exchange costs and simplified cross-border transactions can benefit the transport and logistics sector. Bulgaria’s strategic location as a gateway to Europe can attract more international shipping and logistics companies.
  • Retail and E-commerce: Retail businesses, especially those with cross-border e-commerce operations, can benefit from the Euro’s price stability and reduced transaction costs. Consumers may also have increased confidence in online shopping with a familiar currency.


Bulgaria’s adoption of the Euro on January 1st, 2025, is a significant milestone with both advantages and disadvantages. The impact on regular citizens and the business environment will depend on various factors, including how well the transition is managed, public sentiment, and government policies. With careful planning and consideration of the pros and cons, Bulgaria can navigate this transition to potentially bring long-term benefits to its citizens and create a more favorable business environment for domestic and international companies operating within its borders.


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